Table CDR62830 Stomach Cancer Prevention/胃癌预防
ID Type Description_en Description_zh
w1 Word Diet 饮食控制
w2 Word Dietary supplements 膳食补充剂
p1 Phrase Pylori infection eradication 幽门螺杆菌感染的根治
p2 Phrase H. pylori infection eradication 根除幽门螺杆菌感染
p3 Phrase Stomach (Gastric) Cancer (PDQ®): Prevention 胃癌(PDQ®):预防
p4 Phrase Consistency: Small number of studies 一致性:研究数量少
s1 Sentence Interventions for Reduction of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Risk 降低胃癌发病风险的措施
s2 Sentence Study Design: Randomized controlled trials of H. pylori eradication 研究设计:幽门螺杆菌根除的随机对照试验
s3 Sentence Study Design: Evidence obtained from case-control and cohort studies 研究设计:来自病例对照与队列研究的证据
s4 Sentence H. pylori infection is an accepted cause of gastric adenocarcinoma 幽门螺杆菌被认为是胃腺癌的病因之一
s5 Sentence This hypothesis, however, has not been tested in clinical trials 然而,这一假设尚未经过临床试验证实
s6 Sentence Only 60% of the gastric cancers were diagnosed by histopathology 经组织病理学诊断确诊胃癌的患者仅占60%
s7 Sentence No protective effects for these supplements against gastric cancer were observed 研究结果提示补充服用这两类营养素对胃癌无保护性作用
s8 Sentence Understanding the pathogenesis of gastric cancer has advanced over the years 近年来学界对胃癌发病机制的认识逐渐深入
s9 Sentence External Validity: Fair (populations vary greatly in their underlying nutritional status) 外部效度:一般(研究人群的基础营养水平差异较大)
s10 Sentence Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world 胃癌是世界上第四大最常见的癌症
s11 Sentence However, no RCTs have been done to establish a causal association 然而目前尚无随机对照试验证实两者之间的因果关系
s12 Sentence The study, published in a Chinese medical journal, was not well described 本研究发表于中国医学期刊,具体不详
s13 Sentence However, the combinations of antibiotics and vitamins did not confer additional benefits 但并未观察到抗生素与维生素联合使用增加益处
s14 Sentence Workers in the rubber and coal industries are also at increased risk 橡胶或煤矿业作业人员的胃癌发病风险也较高
s15 Sentence Six-year follow-up results of a study of 976 Colombian patients have been reported 对976例哥伦比亚患者随访6年的结果已发表
s16 Sentence Although designed as a double-blinded trial, allitridium causes a distinctive odor of garlic 尽管研究设计为双盲试验,但大蒜素组可散发特殊的大蒜气味,对双盲的实施有一定影响
s17 Sentence This may be at least partially responsible for declines in gastric cancer rates 这可能与胃癌发病率的下降有一定关系
s18 Sentence In high-risk populations, secondary prevention measures linked to screening programs have been instituted 高危人群的筛查、与筛查项目相关的二级预防措施已经确立
s19 Sentence (Refer to the PDQ summary on Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening for more information.) (详情请参见PDQ总结胃癌的筛查)
s20 Sentence Based on solid evidence, smoking is associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer 可靠证据表明,吸烟会增加胃癌的发病风险
s21 Sentence It is unclear how generalizable the results may be to the North American population 目前尚不明确这些研究结果对北美人群是否适用
s22 Sentence The progression rate was 23% in the placebo group and 17% in antibiotic recipients 安慰剂组的胃癌进展率为23%,抗生素组则为17%
s23 Sentence There is a consistent association between high salt intake and the risk of gastric cancer 高盐摄入与胃癌风险之间存在一致相关性
s24 Sentence None of the comparisons showed a statistically significant effect on the incidence of gastric cancer 上述研究结果中未发现抗氧化补充剂对胃癌发病率有显著性影响
s25 Sentence Interventions With Inadequate Evidence as to Whether They Reduce the Risk of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer 目前证据不足的可能降低胃癌风险的干预措施
s26 Sentence More importantly, the progression rate of intestinal metaplasia was comparable irrespective of the treatments received 更重要的是,肠上皮化生的进展率并不随治疗改变
s27 Sentence Based on solid evidence, H. pylori infection is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer 可靠证据表明,幽门螺杆菌感染者胃癌发病风险升高
s28 Sentence However, studies in H. pylori -infected subjects have been underpowered for determining progression to invasive cancer 然而,目前关于幽门螺杆菌感染是否会进展为浸润性胃癌的评估的效力不足
s29 Sentence Magnitude of Effect: Risk of cancer may be reduced; effect on cancer mortality is not known 效应强度:癌症发病风险可能下降;对癌症死亡率的影响尚不明确
s30 Sentence Compared with persistent smokers, the risk of stomach cancer decreases among former smokers with time since cessation 与持续吸烟者相比,既往吸烟者的胃癌发病风险自戒烟起随时间不断降低
s31 Sentence Twenty trials were identified that assessed the preventive effects of antioxidant supplements or vitamin C on gastrointestinal cancer 20项临床研究评估了抗氧化补充剂或维生素C对胃肠道癌症的预防作用
s32 Sentence Compared with the general population, people with duodenal ulcer disease may have a lower risk of gastric cancer 与正常人群相比,患有十二指肠溃疡的患者胃癌发病风险相对较低
s33 Sentence More than 70% of cases occur in developing countries, and 50% of the cases occur in Eastern Asia 70%以上的胃癌患者在发展中国家,50%在东亚
s34 Sentence A systematic review examined randomized trials of antioxidant dietary supplements for the prevention of gastrointestinal cancers, including gastric cancer 一篇针对多项抗氧化膳食补充剂对胃肠道肿瘤的保护作用的随机临床试验的系统性综述分析了这种干预对胃肠道癌症包括胃癌的预防作用
s35 Sentence Excessive salt intake has been identified as a possible risk factor for gastric cancer in correlation and case-control studies 相关性与病例对照研究表明,高盐饮食已被确定为胃癌的一个可能危险因素
s36 Sentence Only two studies assessed gastric cancer incidence as the primary study outcome, and two different studies were double blinded 只有2项研究以胃癌发病率评估作为主要研究结果,且这2项研究为双盲研究
s37 Sentence Interventions With Inadequate Evidence as to Whether They Reduce the Risk of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer or Evidence of No Effect 降低胃癌风险证据不足或无效的干预措施
s38 Sentence In addition, the experimental design did not permit assessment of the relative effects of beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium 此外,该研究设计也无法评估β胡萝卜素、维生素E和硒之间的相互影响
s39 Sentence Worldwide, the estimated number of cases per year in 2008 was 988,000, and the estimated number of deaths was 736,000 据估计,2008年全球每年胃癌患者约有988,000例,其中736,000例死亡
s40 Sentence There was a qualitative difference in outcome by sex: RRmen = 0.36 (95% CI, 0.14–0.92); RRwomen = 1.14 (95% CI, 0.22–5.76) 研究结果的性别差异明显:男性RR= 0.36(95%CI,0.14-0.92);女性RR= 1.14(95%CI,0.22-5.76)
s41 Sentence Diets high in whole-grain cereals, carotenoids, allium compounds, and green tea are also associated with a reduced risk of this cancer 绿茶、高全麦谷物膳食或膳食中富含类胡萝卜素、葱属植物化合物和绿茶均可降低胃癌的发病风险
s42 Sentence A small randomized trial of antibiotic eradication in 140 H. pylori -infected people suggests the possibility of transmission among close family members 一项140例幽门螺杆菌感染患者参与的小规模随机临床试验表明,可能存在密切接触的家庭成员间的传播
s43 Sentence The age-adjusted incidence rate for gastric cancer in the United States for the years 2004 to 2008 was 7.7 persons per 100,000 population 2004~2008年间,美国调整年龄后的胃癌发病率为7.7/10万,男性发病率为女性的两倍
s44 Sentence The overall summary estimate across all trials of antioxidants showed no statistically significant effect (RR of gastric cancer = 1.14; 95% CI, 0.97–1.33) 对所有抗氧化剂试验结果的综合评估亦显示无显著性差异(胃癌RR= 1.14;95%CI,0.97-1.33)
s45 Sentence Patients were randomly assigned to receive eight different treatments that included vitamin supplements and anti-Helicobacter therapy either alone or in combination versus placebo 这些患者最初被随机分配接受8种不同的治疗方案,包括单独或联合使用维生素补充剂、抗幽门螺杆菌治疗,并与安慰剂组进行对照
s46 Sentence However, it is uncertain if changing one's diet to include more vegetables, fruits, and whole grains would reduce the risk of gastric cancer 然而目前尚不确定调整膳食模式(如增加蔬菜、水果、全麦谷物摄入)是否能够降低胃癌发病风险
s47 Sentence Epidemiologic evidence from case-control and cohort studies suggests that increased intake of fresh fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased gastric cancer rates 来自病例对照与队列研究的流行病学证据表明,增加蔬菜水果的摄入可降低胃癌发病率
s48 Sentence Vaccination against H. pylori has been shown effective in experimental animal models, but thus far, such efficacy has not been studied in humans 已经在动物实验模型上证实了抗幽门螺杆菌疫苗的有效性,但迄今为止,尚未在人群中开展疫苗的有效性研究
s49 Sentence The population studied, however, may have been nutritionally deficient, raising questions of generalizability to other populations such as that of the United States 然而,研究的人群可能存在营养不良,此结果是否能应用于其他人群(如美国人)尚不明确
s50 Sentence Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing stomach cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease 关于可能影响胃癌发病风险的因素及胃癌预防相关研究的专家审核信息总结
s51 Sentence Dietary intake of vitamin C contained in vegetables, fruits, and other foods of plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer 从蔬菜水果或其他植物性食物中摄入的维生素C的量与胃癌发病风险降低相关
s52 Sentence A secondary analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene trial conducted on male smokers in Finland evaluated the effect of supplementation on gastric cancer incidence 芬兰一项针对男性吸烟人群补充α-生育酚和β胡萝卜素的研究评估了营养素补充对胃癌发病率的影响
s53 Sentence This pattern of observations makes it reasonable to infer that cigarette smoking prevention or cessation would result in a decreased risk of gastric cancer 据此可认为,不吸烟或戒烟可以降低胃癌发病风险
s54 Sentence Based on fair evidence, excessive salt intake and deficient dietary consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer 充分证据显示,新鲜蔬菜水果摄入不足或高盐饮食都可能增加胃癌的发病风险
s55 Sentence A chemoprevention trial in China reported a statistically significant reduction in the gastric cancer mortality rate after supplementation with beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium 中国的一项化学干预试验报告结果显示:补充β胡萝卜素、维生素E和硒后,胃癌的死亡率显著下降
s56 Sentence Most cancers in the United States are advanced at diagnosis, which is reflected in an overall 5-year survival rate of 27.1% from 2001 to 2007 美国大多数癌症患者在诊断时已为晚期,表现在2001年至2007年胃癌患者的5年总生存率为27.1%
s57 Sentence Questions remain concerning the natural history of H. pylori infection; the mechanism of transmission and the rates of reinfection or recrudescence for different populations are unknown 幽门螺杆菌感染的自然史尚待研究,不同人群的传染机制、再次感染率与复发率尚不明确
s58 Sentence In Japan, endoscopic resection techniques have been refined and could possibly be responsible for drastic reductions in mortality rates in the presence of steady incidence rates 在日本,胃癌发病率稳定,死亡率却显著下降,这或可归功于内镜切除技术的应用和改进
s59 Sentence Given the problems with design and reporting of the study, the evidence of benefit (including men) is weak and may not be generalizable to Western countries 鉴于此研究的设计缺陷与结果报告问题,受益性证据(包括男性)等级较弱,可能无法推广至西方国家
s60 Sentence The daily intake of salt has decreased drastically in most western countries and in Japan, in part due to public health campaigns to reduce hypertensive diseases 由于公共卫生领域开展的降低高血压疾病的宣传,日本与多数西方国家居民的每日盐摄入量已经有了显著降低
s61 Sentence Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening , Gastric Cancer Treatment , and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available 注:关于胃癌的筛查、治疗以及癌症筛查与预防研究的证据等级等在PDQ总结中可分别查询到
s62 Sentence The process is apparently driven by forces acting on the gastric epithelium for many years, such as excessive dietary salt and most prominently, infection with H. pylori 胃粘膜上皮长年接受的各类刺激促进了这一转化过程,如高盐饮食,或最显著的一个因素-即幽门螺杆菌感染等
s63 Sentence The pattern that emerges from these observations makes it reasonable to infer that cigarette smoking prevention or cessation would result in a decreased risk of gastric cancer 这些研究结果提示,禁烟或戒烟可以降低胃癌风险
s64 Sentence A systematic review and meta-analysis showed a 60% increase in gastric cancer in male smokers and a 20% increase in gastric cancer in female smokers compared with nonsmokers 一项系统性综述与meta分析显示,与不吸烟者相比,男性吸烟者的胃癌发病率增加了60%,女性则增加了20%
s65 Sentence Age-standardized annual incidence rates vary widely across the world: from 3.9 to 42.4 cases per 100,000 in men, and from 2.2 to 18.3 cases per 100,000 in women 不同国家地区的胃癌年龄标化发病率各不相同:男性从3.9/10万到42.4/10万,女性从2.2/10万到18.3/10万
s66 Sentence Another potential explanation for the lack of benefit of vitamin supplementation in this trial was the high prevalence of advanced premalignant lesions and the high H. pylori infection rate 本研究中补充维生素无益处的一个可能解释是:研究人群癌前病变率、幽门螺杆菌感染率均较高
s67 Sentence Dietary indices of micronutrient intake have been calculated and indicate possible protective effects of beta carotene, vitamin A, vitamin E, selenium, vitamin C or foods that contain these compounds 研究者计算了研究对象膳食中微量营养素的摄入情况,结果提示β胡萝卜素、维生素A、维生素E、硒、维生素C或含有这些营养成分的食物可能是胃癌的保护因素
s68 Sentence In 70 participants, only the participant received eradication therapy; in the other 70 participants, all H. pylori -infected family members living with the primary participant also received the eradication therapy 其中70位参与者仅本人接受了根除性治疗,另外70位参与者与同住的有幽门螺杆菌感染的家人共同接受治疗
s69 Sentence Since about half of the world population is infected with H. pylori , antibacterial treatment for all people who are chronically infected may be impractical and could trigger antimicrobial resistance 全球约半数人口有幽门螺杆菌感染,但对所有慢性感染患者进行抗菌治疗难以实现,且可能会产生耐药性
s70 Sentence The 2004 Surgeon General’s report identifies cigarette smoking as a cause of stomach cancer, with an average relative risk (RR) in former smokers of 1.2 and in current smokers of 1.6 2004年,美国公共卫生署的报告将吸烟列为胃癌病因之一,既往吸烟者患胃癌的平均相对危险度(RR)为1.2,而现吸烟者的RR为1.6
s71 Sentence Magnitude of Effect: A systematic review and meta-analysis showed a 60% increase in gastric cancer in male smokers and a 20% increase in gastric cancer in female smokers compared with nonsmokers 效应强度:一项系统性综述与meta分析显示,与不吸烟者相比,男性吸烟者的胃癌发病风险增加60%,女性增加20%
s72 Sentence Among the 79 patients who received anti-Helicobacter therapy, a borderline statistically significant regression of intestinal metaplasia when compared with a placebo (15% vs. 6%; RR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0–9.3) was noted 接受抗幽门螺杆菌治疗的79例患者与安慰剂对照组相比,其肠上皮化生有一定程度的退行,结果有交界性统计学显著性(分别为15%与6%;RR= 3.1;95%CI,1.0-9.3)
s73 Sentence Because of the evidence for an inverse association between gastric cancer and dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, especially those rich in antioxidants, there has been interest in dietary supplementation with antioxidants 基于胃癌发病率与蔬菜水果摄入量(尤其是富含抗氧化剂的食品)负相关的证据,含有抗氧化剂的膳食补充备受研究者关注
s74 Sentence Carcinomas localized to the mucosa or submucosa (“early” cancers) have a much better prognosis; the 5-year survival rate is more than 95% in Japan and more than 65% in the United States 局限于粘膜或粘膜下层的肿瘤(“早期”胃癌)预后较好,在日本,此类患者的5年总生存率为95%,在美国为65%
s75 Sentence Approximately 0.51% of participants in the combined antioxidant groups developed gastric cancer versus 0.38% in the placebo groups after treatment of 2.1 to 12 years and follow-up for as many as 14.1 years 经过2.1-12年的治疗后,联合补充抗氧化剂组中约有0.51%的参与者罹患胃癌,而安慰剂组则为0.38%,随访时间最长的可达14.1年
s76 Sentence The annual number of new cases seems to be steady in recent years; in 2013, it is estimated 21,600 Americans will be diagnosed with gastric cancer and 10,990 persons will die of it 据估计,2013年美国将有21,600人被诊断为胃癌,将有10,990人死于胃癌
s77 Sentence The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies H. pylori infection as a cause of noncardia gastric carcinoma and gastric low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or MALT lymphoma (i.e., a Group 1 human carcinogen) 国际癌症研究机构(IARC)将幽门螺杆菌感染列入非贲门胃癌与胃低恶性B细胞粘膜相关淋巴组织淋巴瘤(MALT淋巴瘤)的病因之一(例如,1类人类致癌原)
s78 Sentence Hospitals in your area may have information about local and regional agencies that have information on finances, getting to and from treatment, receiving care at home, and dealing with problems related to cancer treatment 当地医院可能有当地及地区机构关于财政、治疗、家庭护理和解决癌症治疗相关问题等的信息
s79 Sentence It would be useful to know which subgroups of persons with H. pylori are particularly likely to develop cancer in order to decide which subgroups might be appropriate to consider for targeted screening and eradication 识别出易罹患胃癌的幽门螺杆菌感染亚群将对筛查与进行根除治疗的目标人群的确定有重要的指导作用
s80 Sentence A lengthy precancerous process has been identified in which the gastric mucosa is slowly transformed from normal to chronic gastritis, to multifocal atrophy, to intestinal metaplasia of various degrees, to dysplasia, and then to invasive carcinoma 从正常胃粘膜转变为胃癌的漫长过程中,许多癌变过程已经得到确认,如,正常的胃粘膜会逐渐转化为慢性胃炎、多灶性萎缩性胃炎,进而进展为不同程度的肠上皮化生、不典型增生,最后发展为浸润性胃癌
s81 Sentence In a randomized, double-blind, chemoprevention trial in Venezuela among a population at increased risk for gastric cancer, a combination of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C, E, and beta carotene) failed to modify progression or regression of precancerous gastric lesions 在委内瑞拉的胃癌高危人群中进行了一项随机、双盲化学干预试验,研究显示联合服用抗氧化性维生素(维生素C、E与β胡萝卜素)无法逆转或改变胃癌前病变的进展
s82 Sentence There is consistent evidence that Helicobacter pylori infection, also known as H. pylori infection, of the stomach is strongly associated with both the initiation and promotion of carcinoma of the gastric body and antrum and of gastric lymphoma 证据一致显示,胃幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)的感染与胃体、胃窦癌及胃淋巴瘤的发生、发展有较强相关性
s83 Sentence A total of 5,033 people, who met at least one of the following criteria: (1) medical history of stomach disorder, (2) family history of tumor, (3) history of smoking, or (4) history of alcohol consumption, were randomly assigned 研究共招募5033人,入选的受试者应至少符合以下1条标准:(1)胃部疾病病史,(2)肿瘤家族史,(3)吸烟史,(4)饮酒史,这些受试者将被随机分配到各组
s84 Sentence Nine months after the therapy, the positivity rates in the index participants in each group were 38.6% and 7.1%, respectively (odds ratio = 8.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91–22.84), suggesting the possibility of transmission from untreated, infected family members 治疗结束9个月后,两组的感染阳性率分别为38.6%与7.1%(比值比为8.61;95%置信区间[CI],2.91-22.84),提示被感染的家庭成员,未经治疗,传播幽门螺杆菌感染的可能性
s85 Sentence A randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed that short-term treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole reduced the incidence of gastric cancer by 39% during a period of 15 years following randomization, with similar but not statistically significant reductions for gastric cancer mortality 一项随机对照试验(RCT)表明,在随机化后15年的随访期中,阿莫西林联合奥美拉唑的短期治疗可以使胃癌发病率降低39%,胃癌死亡率亦有相似降低,但无统计学意义
s86 Sentence People at elevated risk for gastric cancer include elderly patients with atrophic gastritis or pernicious anemia, patients with sporadic gastric adenomas, familial adenomatous polyposis, or hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, and immigrant ethnic populations from countries with high rates of gastric carcinoma 胃癌的高危人群包括患有萎缩性胃炎或恶性贫血的老年人,散发性胃腺瘤、家族性腺瘤性息肉病、或遗传性非息肉性结肠癌患者,以及来自胃癌高发国家的移民
s87 Sentence After a follow-up for as many as 11 years, there were a total of 23 gastric cancer cases in the allitridium/selenium group and 30 cases in the placebo group (RR after adjustment for a number of baseline characteristics = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.21–1.06) 随访11年后,大蒜素/硒元素组共出现23例胃癌病例,而安慰剂组则出现30例(基线特征校正后RR= 0.48; 95%CI,0.21-1.06)
s88 Sentence A meta-analysis of seven randomized studies, all conducted in areas of high-risk gastric cancer and all but one conducted in Asia, suggests that treatment of H. pylori may reduce gastric cancer risk (from 1.7% to 1.1%; RR = 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.43–0.98) 在胃癌高发地区开展的7项随机研究中,除1项之外,其余均在亚洲进行。对这7项研究进行meta分析,结果提示: 治疗幽门螺杆菌可降低胃癌发病风险(从1.7%降低至1.1%;RR=0.65;95%置信区间,0.43-0.98)
s89 Sentence A systematic review of studies addressing the relationship between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer to estimate the magnitude of the association for different levels of exposure to cancer provides solid evidence to classify smoking as the most important behavioral risk factor for gastric cancer 对多项研究的一篇系统性综述强调了吸烟与胃癌的关系,分析了不同的吸烟暴露水平下胃癌的发病风险,得到确凿证据,证实吸烟为胃癌最重要的行为危险因素
s90 Sentence A meta-analysis of seven randomized studies, all conducted in areas with high-risk gastric cancer populations, and all but one study conducted in Asia, suggests that treatment of H. pylori may reduce gastric cancer risk (from 1.7% to 1.1%; relative risk [RR] = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43–0.98) 在胃癌高发地区开展的7项研究中,除1项之外,其余均在亚洲进行。对这7项研究进行荟萃分析,结果提示幽门螺杆菌治疗可能降低胃癌风险(从1.7%降低至1.1%;相对危险度[RR]=0.65;95%CI,0.43-0.98)
s91 Sentence Even studies of associations between baseline characteristics (such as age, alcohol use, and well water used as the source of drinking water in rural China) and histologic progression of intestinal metaplasia to more severe grades of metaplasia show associations of insufficient magnitude to be useful in clinical decision making 一些研究评估了基线特征(如年龄、饮酒、井水——中国农村饮用水的主要来源)与肠化生或更重度的化生等组织学进展的关系,然而并无充分证据可用于临床决策的制定
s92 Sentence In the initial report from a clinical trial, 3,365 randomized subjects were followed in an intention-to-treat analysis; it was shown that short-term treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole reduced the incidence of gastric cancer by 39% during a period of 15 years following randomization, with similar but not statistically significant reductions for gastric cancer mortality 一项临床试验中,将3365例受试者进行随机分组干预后,并进行随访。该试验的初步报告显示,短期阿莫西林联合奥美拉唑治疗后,随访15年,胃癌发病率下降了39%,胃癌死亡率也有类似降低,但该降低与对照组相比,无统计学意义
s93 Sentence In the combined analysis of all 20 trials of antioxidants for the prevention of gastrointestinal cancers, a fixed effects model showed an increase in overall mortality of antioxidants compared with a placebo (RR for mortality = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.07) but not in a random effects model (RR for mortality = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97–1.07) 对20项研究利用固效应模型进行综合分析发现,服用抗氧化剂组总死亡率高于安慰剂组(死亡率RR= 1.04;95%CI,1.02-1.07),但随机效应模型并未提示这一结果(死亡率RR= 1.02;95%CI:0.97-1.07)
s94 Sentence Risk factors for gastric cancer include the presence of precursor conditions such as chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, pernicious anemia, and gastric adenomatous polyps. Genetic factors include a family history of gastric cancer, Li Fraumeni syndrome, and Type A blood type. Environmental factors include low consumption of fruits and vegetables; consumption of salted, smoked, or poorly preserved foods; cigarette smoking; and radiation exposure 胃癌的危险因素包括:癌前病变,如慢性萎缩性胃炎、肠上皮化生、恶性贫血、胃腺瘤性息肉病;遗传因素,如胃癌家族史、Li-Fraumeni综合征(李-佛美尼综合症)和A型血;环境因素,如低蔬果饮食、高盐、熏制或变质食品的摄入、吸烟和辐射暴露
s95 Sentence Likewise, there was a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 200 mg of oral allitridium (a component of garlic) every day combined with 100 mcg of oral selenium every other day for 1 month of each year over a 3-year period in Qixia County (Shandong Province, China), an area with low intake of garlic and low selenium content in their garlic compared with other areas of China 中国的另一项类似研究在栖霞县(中国山东省)进行,此项随机、安慰剂对照临床试验招募志愿者每日口服200mg大蒜素(大蒜的成分之一),同时隔日服用100mcg硒元素,每年连续服用1月,共3年。此地区的大蒜摄入量较其他地区低,且该地区大蒜中的硒元素含量少
s96 Sentence With regard to gastric cancer, there were 12 comparisons of one or more micronutrients with placebo: beta-carotene alone (4 trials); vitamin C alone (1 trial); vitamin E alone (1 trial); vitamin A plus beta-carotene (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamin C (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamin E (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamins C and E (1 trial); selenium plus vitamins C and E (1 trial); and beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and selenium (1 trial) 对于胃癌,有12项1种或多种微量营养素联合使用并有安慰剂对照比较的临床试验,包括单用β胡萝卜素(4项试验);单用维生素C(1项试验);单用维生素E(1项试验);维生素A联合β胡萝卜素(1项试验);β胡萝卜素联合维生素C(1项试验);β胡萝卜素联合维生素E(1项试验);β胡萝卜素联合维生素C与E(1项试验);硒联合维生素C与E(1项试验);β胡萝卜素、维生素C、维生素E和硒联合使用(1项试验)