Table CDR62757 Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening/胃癌筛查
ID Type Description_en Description_zh
w1 Word Gastric endoscopy 胃镜
w2 Word Serum pepsinogen 血清胃蛋白酶原
w3 Word Find Publications 查询出版物
p1 Phrase External Validity: Poor 可推广度:较差
p2 Phrase Barium-meal gastric photofluorography 上消化道钡餐造影
p3 Phrase Internal Validity : Fair 可信度:一般
p4 Phrase External Validity : Poor 可推广性: 差
p5 Phrase Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening 胃癌筛查
p6 Phrase Consistency : Inadequate evidence 一致性:证据不足
p7 Phrase Stomach (Gastric) Cancer (PDQ®): Screening 胃癌(PDQ®):筛查​
p8 Phrase Evidence of Harm Associated With Screening 筛查伤害证据
p9 Phrase Clinical considerations for high risk groups 对高危人群的临床建议
p10 Phrase Consistency : Poor in prospective studies 一致性:前瞻性研究中一致性较差
s1 Sentence The major type of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma (95%) 腺癌是胃癌的主要类型(95%)
s2 Sentence The most frequent harm is the occurrence of false-positive tests 假阳性是最常见的弊端与危害
s3 Sentence In addition, there are no standard cut-off values of abnormality 血清胃蛋白酶原检测亦无明确的诊断临界值
s4 Sentence In addition, the intervals between screens may have been too long 此外,研究中筛查的时间间隔可能过长
s5 Sentence No impact on gastric cancer mortality was observed among screened individuals 接受筛查的人群并未观察到死亡率降低
s6 Sentence Two-thirds of people diagnosed with gastric cancer are older than 66 years 首次诊断胃癌时三分之二的患者超过66岁
s7 Sentence Study Design : Evidence obtained from screening programs and from case series 研究设计:证据来源于筛查项目与系列病例
s8 Sentence Diffuse-type lesions are associated with a worse prognosis than the intestinal type 弥漫型病变的预后较差
s9 Sentence A screening study was begun in Venezuela in 1980, using radiographic fluorography 委内瑞拉自1980年起的一项筛查研究使用了放射荧光显影
s10 Sentence False-positive tests are also common in association with serum pepsinogen or gastric photofluorography 血清胃蛋白酶原检验或胃荧光成像常出现假阳性结果
s11 Sentence Gastric cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, especially in developing countries 胃癌是全球尤其是发展中国家导致死亡的重要原因
s12 Sentence The remaining malignant tumors include lymphomas, sarcomas, carcinoid tumors and other rare types 其他胃部恶性肿瘤包括淋巴瘤、肉瘤、类癌与其他罕见类型
s13 Sentence Gastric adenocarcinomas can be further categorized into an intestinal type and a diffuse type 胃腺癌又可以进一步分为肠型和弥漫型
s14 Sentence Endoscopy appears to be more sensitive than photofluorography for the detection of gastric cancer 胃镜对于胃癌筛查的敏感度优于荧光显影
s15 Sentence As with any screening test, there is a possibility of overdiagnosis with attendant overtreatment 并且,和其他筛查一样,胃癌的筛查也可能造成过度诊断、过度治疗
s16 Sentence Expert-reviewed information summary about tests used to detect or screen for stomach (gastric) cancer 专家总结的食管癌筛查及检出技术信息
s17 Sentence Of the 85 cases of gastric cancer occurring in the cohort, 58 were detected with screening 筛查检出了队列中所有85例胃癌中的58例
s18 Sentence Intestinal-type lesions are frequently ulcerative and occur in the distal stomach more often than the diffuse type 与弥漫型相比,肠型多为溃疡性病变,在胃腺癌远端居多
s19 Sentence Updated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2014 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1) 更新了2014年新发病例与死亡病例估计值的统计数据​(引用参考资料1美国癌症协会数据)
s20 Sentence National Cancer Institute: PDQ® Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified &lt;MM/DD/YYYY&gt; 美国国家癌症研究所:PDQ®胃癌的筛查. Bethesda, MD:美国国家癌症研究所. 末次修订日期<月/日/年>
s21 Sentence Over the 7-year period, there was no reduction in gastric cancer mortality compared with an age-matched surrounding population 相较于年龄匹配的普通人群,7年中筛查后胃癌死亡率未下降
s22 Sentence The data were observational, and not primarily collected to evaluate the effect of screening on gastric cancer mortality 数据为观察性数据,最初采集的目的并非是评价胃镜筛查对胃癌死亡率的影响
s23 Sentence Compared with the general population, people with duodenal ulcer disease may have a lower risk of gastric cancer 与正常人群相比,患有十二指肠溃疡的患者胃癌发病率相对较低
s24 Sentence Even in very high-risk areas, the positive predictive value (PPV) of the screening tests may be very low 即使在极高危地区,胃癌筛查检测的阳性预测值(PPV)也可很低
s25 Sentence Studies on populations in high-risk areas may not be applicable to low-risk areas such as the United States 高风险地区的研究结果可能不适用于低风险地区,如美国
s26 Sentence Study Design : Evidence obtained from case-control and cohort studies, primarily from high-risk areas such as Eastern Asia 研究设计:证据来源于病例对照与队列研究,尤其是东亚地区等胃癌高风险区
s27 Sentence In 2014, it is estimated that 22,220 Americans will be diagnosed with gastric cancer and 10,990 will die of it 据估计,2014年美国将会有22200人被诊断为胃癌,10990人因胃癌死亡
s28 Sentence The positive test rates were 19.5% for serum pepsinogen and 22.5% for radiography, with a cancer detection rate of 0.28% 血清胃蛋白酶原阳性检测率为19.5%,造影阳性检测率为22.5%,肿瘤检出率为0.28%
s29 Sentence The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for gastric cancer 10 years after the initial screen was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.72–1.37) 初筛后胃癌10年标准化死亡比(SMR)为1.01(95%置信区间0.72-1.37)
s30 Sentence The incidence of gastric cancer in the United States has decreased fourfold since 1930 to approximately seven cases per 100,000 people 1930年来,美国的胃癌发生率已减少四倍,约为每100,000人中7人患病
s31 Sentence Exposure to the low doses of radiation (about 0.6 mSv in photofluorography) carries a theoretical but poorly quantified risk of carcinogenesis 暴露于低剂量X射线(荧光显影中约0.6mSv)理论上有致癌性,但未经量化证实
s32 Sentence In addition, unlike the community controls, patients diagnosed with gastric cancer through the screening program were treated at a single referral center 此外,与社区对照不同的是,在筛查中被诊断为胃癌的患者均在同一家中心进行治疗
s33 Sentence This combination provided a sensitivity of 84.6%, a specificity of 73.5%, a PPV of 0.81%, and a negative predictive value of 99.6% 这两种检验手段联合使用后检出敏感性提高至84.6%,特异性提高至73.5%,阳性预测值为0.81%,阴性预测值为99.6%
s34 Sentence Case-control studies from Japan show decreases in gastric mortality in people who have undergone screening, but results from prospective studies were not consistent 日本的病例对照研究显示,筛查人群的胃癌死亡率有下降,但前瞻性研究的结果并不一致
s35 Sentence Additional rare complications of screening may include adverse effects of premedication (used for endoscopy and sometimes photofluorography), and bleeding or perforation from endoscopy 其他罕见的筛查并发症包括检测前用药(行胃镜或荧光显影前)引起的不良反应和胃镜造成的穿孔、出血
s36 Sentence Distinguishing the common adenocarcinoma from the uncommon lymphoma may sometimes be difficult but is important, due to major differences in staging, treatment, and prognosis 不同的胃癌病理分类在分期、治疗和预后上有明显差异,因此正确区分常见的腺癌和不常见的淋巴癌非常重要
s37 Sentence Individuals were screened at an average of 4.5-year intervals, except for a high-risk subset (689 individuals) that was screened 2 years after the initial examination 筛查间隔平均为4.5年,初筛后确定的高危人群(689人)筛查间隔为2年
s38 Sentence Harms of routine screening for gastric cancer are poorly quantitated or reported, and derive chiefly from screening experiences in very high-risk areas such as Japan 由于胃癌常规筛查而造成的伤害罕有量量化或报道,且数据主要来自于胃癌高发区(如日本)
s39 Sentence The study was, however, prone to strong biases, including selection bias, and likely differential exclusion of people with previously diagnosed gastric cancer favoring the screened population 然而此项研究有较强的偏向性,包括选择偏差,可能倾向于排除曾被诊断为胃癌的人群,从而偏向于筛查组人群
s40 Sentence The SMR for all-cause mortality was significantly lower among participants because individuals with hypertension, liver disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were not eligible to participate 受试者的全因死亡率SMR显著较低,因招募时已排除高血压、肝病与慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者
s41 Sentence The PPV of a suspicious fluorograph was 3%; the specificity in the two rounds was 67% and 80%; and the positivity rates were 34% and 20% 荧光显影的阳性预测值为3%,两轮筛查的特异性分别为67%与80%,阳性率分别为34%与20%
s42 Sentence The disease is much more common in other countries, principally Japan, Central Europe, Scandinavia, Hong Kong, South and Central America, the Soviet Union, China, and Korea 胃癌在其他国家更加常见,主要包括日本、中欧、斯堪的纳维亚、香港、南非与中非、苏联、中国与韩国
s43 Sentence There may be justification for screening some populations of Americans at higher risk, although there is considerable discussion about how much incidence would make the examination worthwhile 目前,有证据支持对美国高危人群进行胃癌筛查,但关于发病率达何种程度才能使得筛查有意义仍存在争议
s44 Sentence A pilot study of community-based photofluorography was conducted in Costa Rica using the same techniques as those used in Japan’s national program (with consultation from Japanese experts) 哥斯达黎加的一项基于社区的初步研究亦使用了X线荧光造影的手段进行筛查(同上日本国内研究手段,与日本研究者进行商榷决定)
s45 Sentence Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention , Gastric Cancer Treatment , and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available 注:胃癌的预防、胃癌的治疗以及癌症筛查与预防研究相关资料见于本站相关链接信息
s46 Sentence Based on solid evidence, screening would result in uncommon but serious side effects associated with endoscopy, which may include perforation, cardiopulmonary events, aspiration pneumonia, and bleeding requiring hospitalization 确凿证据显示,胃癌筛查可能引起罕见、但一旦发生即很严重的内镜相关副作用,包括穿孔、心肺事件、吸入性肺炎与需要住院的出血事件
s47 Sentence There are no studies evaluating the effect of screening with serum pepsinogen on gastric cancer mortality, and there are important limitations to its use as a screening test 目前尚无评估血清胃蛋白酶原检测对胃癌死亡率影响的研究,并且其本身作为筛查手段亦有重要的局限性
s48 Sentence Although there has been a coincident decrease in mortality from gastric cancer in Japan, mortality rates have been decreasing in many developed countries despite the lack of screening programs 尽管日本的胃癌死亡率确有下降,但全球很多发达国家非筛查胃癌死亡率也在同时降低
s49 Sentence People were invited by letter from a population registry to attend two rounds of screening, and a total of 6,200 eligible screened participants (of a planned 12,000) were analyzed 人口注册中心发出邮件邀请居民参与两轮筛查,研究共分析了6200名符合要求的受筛选受试者(计划招募12000人)
s50 Sentence A cohort study of endoscopic screening was conducted in Linqu County, China, where gastric cancer rates are high, in which 4,394 adult residents aged 35 to 64 years were screened 中国胃癌高发区利群县的一项胃镜筛查队列研究中,4394名35-64岁居民接受了胃镜筛查
s51 Sentence The efficacy of this program in reducing mortality from stomach cancer was evaluated by means of a case-control study, and there was no detectable reduction in mortality from gastric cancer 通过病例对照研究评估该筛查对降低胃癌死亡率的作用,发现胃癌死亡率在检出限度内不受影响
s52 Sentence Low serum pepsinogen levels indicate the presence of atrophic gastritis and are therefore applicable to the detection of presumed precursors for intestinal type gastric cancer rather than the diffuse type 低血清胃蛋白酶原可能提示萎缩性胃炎,因此被认为可以预测肠型胃癌的早期病变,但对弥漫型胃癌无检测作用
s53 Sentence Based on fair evidence, screening would not result in a decrease in mortality from gastric cancer in areas with relatively low incidence of the disease, such as the United States 根据充分证据,在美国等胃癌发病率相对较低的国家和地区,胃癌筛查并不降低死亡率
s54 Sentence Time-trend analysis and case-control studies of gastric endoscopy suggest a twofold decrease in gastric cancer mortality in screened versus unscreened individuals; however, this stands in contrast to studies of stronger design 胃镜的相关时间趋势分析与病例对照研究表明,接受筛查个体的胃癌死亡率比未筛查个体降低一半但其他更优设计的研究结果并不一致
s55 Sentence There is consistent evidence that Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach is strongly associated with both the initiation and promotion of carcinoma of the gastric body and antrum, and of gastric lymphoma 有一致证据显示,胃幽门螺旋杆菌的感染可以提高胃体、胃窦癌与胃淋巴瘤的发生与进展
s56 Sentence The reasons for this striking decrease in incidence are not fully understood but are suspected to be related to improved storage of food and changes in diet, such as decreased salt intake 美国发病率持续下降的原因并不明确,但可能与食物储藏、饮食习惯的改变相关,诸如盐摄入量的减少
s57 Sentence A national program of population-based screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography has been ongoing since the 1960s in Japan. Participation rates have been in the range of only 10% to 20% 日本自20世纪60年代即开始了一项国内人群的胃癌钡餐荧光造影筛查,参与人群比例在10%-20%之间
s58 Sentence The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies H. pylori infection as a cause of noncardia gastric carcinoma and low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue gastric lymphoma (i.e., a Group 1 human carcinogen) 国际癌症研究机构(IARC)认为幽门螺旋杆菌感染可导致非贲门胃癌与低分级B细胞粘膜相关淋巴组织胃淋巴瘤的发生(例如,1类人类致癌原)
s59 Sentence Finally, eradication of H. pylori and use of proton pump inhibitors for the management of indigestion change pepsinogen levels, making interpretation of results difficult in the setting of widespread use of these interventions 最后,一些常用的治疗,如根除幽门螺旋杆菌、服用质子泵抑制剂治疗消化不良等均会影响胃蛋白酶原水平,使结果解读不准确
s60 Sentence In a screening program of 17,647 men aged 40 to 60 years in Wakayama City, Japan, the PPV of combined serum pepsinogen and barium meal with digital radiography over the 7-year period was 0.85% 在日本和歌山县的一项胃癌筛查项目共对17647名年龄40-60岁的男性进行血清胃蛋白酶原检查联合上消化道钡餐造影,研究时长7年,筛查的阳性预测值为0.85%
s61 Sentence Their gastric cancer mortality from 2 to 7 years after screening was compared with four control groups that had not been invited to be screened, and the relative risk was about 0.5 (no p-value reported) 研究对比了筛查组和其他四组未接受筛查人群的2-7年胃癌死亡率,相对风险为0.5(未报道P值)
s62 Sentence Despite the authors’ belief that their results provided substantial evidence that routine screening would decrease gastric cancer mortality, they concluded that the costs of screening with photofluorography would be far too high in their country 尽管研究者认为此研究为筛查可以降低胃癌死亡率提供了有力证据,但是荧光显影成本对于本国过高
s63 Sentence The intestinal type tends to be predominant in geographic regions with a high incidence of gastric carcinoma. The decline in the incidence of gastric cancer worldwide is largely due to a decrease in the number of intestinal-type lesions 肠型胃癌常见于胃癌高发地区,近年来肠型胃癌发生率的下降是导致全球胃癌发病率下降的主要原因
s64 Sentence Several screening techniques, including barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, and serum pepsinogen have been proposed as screening methods for the early detection of gastric cancer. No randomized trials evaluating the impact of screening on mortality from gastric cancer have been reported 曾有人提出可将上消化道钡餐造影、胃镜和血清胃蛋白酶原检查等几种筛查方法作为胃癌的早期检测方法,但目前尚未报道过任何随机临床试验评估胃癌筛查对死亡率的影响
s65 Sentence Since harms such as perforation and bleeding may vary with the experience of the screening center, they may be higher in populations at low risk for gastric cancer, such as the United States, than in mass screening programs in Japan 由于穿孔、出血事件的发生和筛查中心的技术相关,故胃癌风险较低人群(如美国)的筛查危险大于高发人群(如日本)
s66 Sentence Some populations of Americans are at elevated risk, including elderly patients with atrophic gastritis or pernicious anemia, patients with sporadic gastric adenomas, familial adenomatous polyposis, or hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, and immigrant ethnic populations from countries with high rates of gastric carcinoma 在美国,风险较高的人群包括患有萎缩性胃炎或恶性贫血的老年人、偶发胃腺瘤的患者、家族性结肠腺瘤病、遗传性非息肉性结肠癌、或来自胃癌高发地区的其他种族的移民
s67 Sentence Potential subgroups might include elderly patients with atrophic gastritis or pernicious anemia, patients with partial gastrectomy, patients with the diagnosis of sporadic adenomas, familial adenomatous polyposis, or hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, and immigrant ethnic populations from countries with high rates of gastric carcinoma 风险较高的人群包括患有萎缩性胃炎或恶性贫血的老年人、胃部分切除术后患者、偶发胃腺瘤患者、家族性结肠腺瘤病患者、遗传性非息肉性结肠癌患者、或来自胃癌高发地区的移民
s68 Sentence In Japan, measurement of serum pepsinogen levels I and II (PGI and PGII) in 5,113 subjects also screened by endoscopy (13 gastric cancers detected), used cut-off points for identifying risk for gastric cancer of less than 70 ng/mL for PGI and less than 3 ng/mL for the PGI:PGII ratio 日本的一项研究对5113例受试者进行了血清胃蛋白酶原I与II(PGI与PGII)检测,并辅以胃镜进行筛查(筛出胃癌共13例),研究使用的临界值为PGI小于70ng/mL,PGI:PGII比值小于3ng/mL
s69 Sentence Risk factors for gastric cancer include the presence of precursor conditions such as chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, pernicious anemia, and gastric adenomatous polyps. Genetic and environmental factors include a family history of gastric cancer; low consumption of fruits and vegetables; consumption of salted, smoked, or poorly preserved foods; and cigarette smoking 胃癌的危险因素包括:癌前病变如慢性萎缩性胃炎、肠上皮化生、恶性贫血、胃腺瘤性息肉;遗传与环境因素,如胃癌家族史;低蔬果饮食;高盐、熏制或不良保存食品的摄入;吸烟