Table CDR433282 Liver Cancer Prevention/肝癌预防
ID Type Description_en Description_zh
w1 Word Food 食物
w2 Word China 中国
w3 Word Mediterranean 地中海地区
w4 Word Region 地区
w5 Word Hepatitis G 庚型肝炎
w6 Word Hepatitis E 戊型肝炎
w7 Word Hepatitis A 甲型肝炎
w8 Word South America 南美地区
w9 Word Hepatitis B 乙型肝炎
w10 Word Western Africa 西非地区
w11 Word Hepatitis F 己型肝炎
w12 Word Hepatitis C 丙型肝炎
w13 Word drinking water 饮用水
w14 Word Clinical Consequences 临床结果
w15 Word United States 美国
w16 Word Acute hepatitis 急性肝炎
w17 Word Northern Europe 北欧地区
w18 Word Hepatitis D 丁型肝炎
p1 Phrase Infected drinking water 被感染的饮用水
p2 Phrase Hepatitis C virus 丙肝病毒
p3 Phrase Mode of Transmission 传播途径
p4 Phrase Hepatitis B virus 乙肝病毒
p5 Phrase Dominant Geographical Areas 主要地区
p6 Phrase No virus confirmed 病毒不确定
p7 Phrase Full recovery (usually) 完全治愈(常见结局)
p8 Phrase Hepatic Virus Types 肝炎病毒类型
p9 Phrase To be determined 尚待研究
p10 Phrase Evidence of Benefit 有益的证据
p11 Phrase Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention 肝(肝细胞)癌的预防
p12 Phrase Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening 肝(肝细胞)癌的筛查
p13 Phrase Hepatitis B and C 乙型肝炎与丙型肝炎
p14 Phrase Prevention of Hepatitis B 乙肝的预防
p15 Phrase Cirrhosis and other factors 肝硬化与其他因素
p16 Phrase Incidence (per 100,000 population) 发病率(每10万人口)
p17 Phrase Adapted from Russo et al 数据源自Russo et al.
p18 Phrase Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer (PDQ®): Prevention 肝(肝细胞)癌(PDQ®):预防
p19 Phrase Body fluids, e.g., blood, semen 体液,例如血液、精液
p20 Phrase Little or no association with cancer 与肝癌相关性小或不相关
p21 Phrase It is a sexually transmitted disease 乙型肝炎属于性传播疾病
p22 Phrase Table 3. Likely Etiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma 表3. 肝细胞癌病因
p23 Phrase Hepatitis B Vaccine to Prevent Hepatocellular Cancer 乙肝疫苗对肝细胞癌的预防
p24 Phrase Viruses Associated With Hepatitis and/or Hepatocellular Cancer 与肝炎和(或)肝细胞癌相关的病毒
p25 Phrase Hepatitis D causes swelling of the liver 丁型肝炎引起肝脏肿胀
s1 Sentence About 80% of persons with HCC have cirrhosis 约有80%的HCC患者患有肝硬化
s2 Sentence Hepatitis C can be either acute or chronic 丙型肝炎可以是急性或者慢性
s3 Sentence People with hepatitis A usually improve without treatment 甲肝患者通常可以自愈
s4 Sentence Hepatitis D is caused by the virus HDV 丁型肝炎病原体为HDV病毒
s5 Sentence Table 1. Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Geographic Region 表1. 不同地区的肝细胞癌发病率
s6 Sentence Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus 戊型肝炎的病原体为HEV
s7 Sentence The likely etiology of HCC is summarized in Table 3 HCC可能的病因总结见表3
s8 Sentence Almost everyone who develops hepatitis A has a full recovery 几乎所有甲型肝炎的感染者均可完全治愈
s9 Sentence Table 1 summarizes the incidence of HCC by geographic region 表1总结了不同地区的HCC发病率
s10 Sentence Age-standardized incidence rates are 2.1 per 100,000 population in North America 北美的年龄标准化发病率为每年每十万人2.1例
s11 Sentence There are several types of viruses associated with hepatitis and/or HCC 多种病毒与肝炎和(或)肝细胞癌相关
s12 Sentence Acute hepatitis and chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and liver cancer 急性肝炎与慢性肝病,包括肝硬化和肝癌
s13 Sentence Can cause liver damage; can result in acute or chronic HCC 可导致肝脏损伤、急性或慢性HCC
s14 Sentence Hepatitis C is of concern to both industrialized and developing countries 丙型肝炎是工业化国家和发展中国家的重要卫生问题
s15 Sentence Iron depletion improves serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hepatic oxidative DNA damage 铁减少改善了患者的血清丙氨酸转氨酶水平与肝氧化性DNA损伤
s16 Sentence This type of hepatitis does not occur often in the United States 这类肝炎在美国并不常见
s17 Sentence Hepatitis E can be spread through oral-anal contact or by drinking infected water 戊型肝炎可通过粪口传播或通过饮用感染水源传播
s18 Sentence Hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C are diseases caused by three different viruses 甲型肝炎、乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎分别是由三种不同的病毒引起的
s19 Sentence Cirrhosis is a risk factor for HCC, irrespective of the etiology of the cirrhosis 各种病因引起的肝硬化均是HCC的危险因素
s20 Sentence Group B (n = 40) comprised CHC patients who declined to receive iron depletion therapy B组患者(n=40)为拒绝接受铁减少疗法的患者
s21 Sentence The annual risk of developing HCC among persons with cirrhosis is between 1% and 6% 肝硬化患者HCC的年发生率介于1%与6%之间
s22 Sentence A person can only get hepatitis D if they are already infected with hepatitis B 只有乙型肝炎患者才会感染丁型肝炎
s23 Sentence Hepatitis A appears only as an acute or newly occurring infection and does not become chronic 甲型肝炎仅表现为急性或新发感染,不会转为慢性感染
s24 Sentence The incidence of HCC in individuals with chronic hepatitis is as high as 0.46% per year 慢性肝炎患者中,HCC的年发病率高达0.46%
s25 Sentence Hepatitis A is caused by eating food and drinking water infected with a virus called HAV 甲型肝炎由摄入感染了HAV病毒的食物与水而引起
s26 Sentence Hepatitis B can be a serious infection that can cause liver damage, which may result in cancer 严重乙型肝炎可导致肝损伤,继而引起癌症
s27 Sentence In the United States, chronic hepatitis B and CHC account for about 30% to 40% of HCC 在美国,30%-40%的HCC由慢性乙肝和CHC引起
s28 Sentence Updated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 4) 更新了2013年新发病例与死亡病例估计值统计数据(引用美国癌症协会参考资料4)
s29 Sentence This association, however, is blurred by the frequent coexistence of hepatitis B infection in those population groups 但这一相关性并不明确,因为当地人群中乙肝同时感染率亦高
s30 Sentence Chronic hepatitis G infection is not associated with HCC in either hepatitis B surface antigen-positive carriers or noncarriers 无论是乙肝病毒表面抗原阳性的携带者还是非携带者,慢性的己型肝炎感染与HCC无关
s31 Sentence There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and B; however, there is not a vaccine for hepatitis C 目前有预防甲肝和乙肝的疫苗,但没有丙肝疫苗
s32 Sentence It is spread through contact with infected blood, dirty needles, and unprotected sex with a person infected with HDV 其传播途径包括接触HDV感染者的血液、重复使用针头和与感染者的非保护性性交
s33 Sentence In the United States, HCC incidence and mortality rates continue to increase, particularly among middle-aged black, Hispanic, and white men 在美国,HCC的发病率与死亡率均在上升,尤其见于黑人、西班牙裔与白人中年男性
s34 Sentence Hepatitis C results from infection with HCV, which is spread primarily through contact with the blood of an infected person 丙型肝炎病原体为HCV,主要通过感染者的血液传播
s35 Sentence Although each disease can cause similar symptoms, the diseases have different modes of transmission and can affect the liver differently 虽然三类肝炎的症状相似,但其传播途径不同,对肝脏造成的影响也不相同
s36 Sentence In a cohort study of biopsy-proven CHC patients with moderate or severe liver fibrosis, patients were divided into two groups 一项队列研究中,活检证实为中至重度肝纤维化CHC患者被分为两组
s37 Sentence Long-term iron depletion in CHC patients has been studied as a modality for lowering the risk of progression to HCC 一项研究发现长期铁减少可降低CHC患者的HCC风险
s38 Sentence Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world and the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide 肝细胞癌(HCC)是全球第四大常见癌症,也是全球第三大癌症死亡原因
s39 Sentence Both groups included patients who failed to respond to previous interferon (IFN) therapy or had conditions for which IFN was contraindicated 两组均纳入的是对干扰素(IFN)治疗无反应或有干扰素治疗禁忌证的患者
s40 Sentence Immunization programs are justified for preventing important short-term consequences of hepatitis B infection, such as acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis 接种计划亦可预防乙肝感染的重要短期后果,如急性肝炎、慢性肝炎和肝硬化
s41 Sentence Based on solid evidence, immunizing individuals against hepatitis B would lead to a decrease in the incidence of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) 充分的证据表明,接种乙肝疫苗的个体肝细胞癌(HCC)的发病率降低
s42 Sentence Heavy aflatoxin exposure is associated with inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, but epidemiological evidence of a causal association is limited 暴露于大量黄曲霉素与p53肿瘤抑制基因失活有关,但其因果关系的流行病学证据有限
s43 Sentence If a person has had one type of viral hepatitis in the past, it is still possible to get the other types 如果患者在过去曾感染一种肝炎病毒,仍有机会再感染另一类型的病毒
s44 Sentence Hepatitis B is caused by the virus HBV, which is spread by contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or other body fluid 乙型肝炎的病原体为HBV,其传播途径为感染者的血液、精液或其他体液
s45 Sentence It is estimated that there will be 30,640 new cases diagnosed and 21,670 deaths due to this disease in the United States in 2013 据估计,2013年美国将新诊断30,640例肝细胞癌,并且有21,670例死亡发生
s46 Sentence HBV- and HCV-related chronic hepatitis are the main causes of cirrhosis and HCC, which are responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality HBV与HCV相关性慢性肝炎是导致肝硬化与HCC的主要原因,引起较高的致病率与致死率
s47 Sentence Hepatitis C liver disease ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness that attacks the liver 丙型肝炎疾病可有不同严重度,可仅持续几周对肝脏造成轻度损伤,也可导致严重的终生肝脏损伤
s48 Sentence Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing hepatocellular cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease 关于影响肝细胞癌风险的因素及预防该疾病相关研究的专家审核信息
s49 Sentence Initial follow-up of these cases showed that approximately 50% of patients developed chronic hepatitis, based on persistence of serum enzymes for at least 6 months 对体内血清肝酶持续升高至少6个月的患者进行初步随访发现,约有50%的患者出现了慢性肝炎
s50 Sentence Hepatitis is also the name of a family of viral infections that affect the liver; the most common types are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C 肝炎也是一类损伤肝脏病毒感染的总称,最常见的有甲型肝炎、乙型肝炎与丙型肝炎病毒
s51 Sentence Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most frequent viral infections in humans and represent a major global public health problem 乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)与丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)感染是人类最常见的病毒感染之一,也是全球公共卫生的棘手问题
s52 Sentence After the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses were discovered, neither agent was found responsible for many cases of transfusion-related hepatitis—hence the designation non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis 人们发现甲型肝炎和乙型肝炎病毒后,仍无法解释某些输血相关性肝炎的发生,故曾被命名这一类肝炎为非甲非乙型肝炎(NANB)
s53 Sentence Hepatocarcinogenesis rates in groups A and B were 5.7% and 17.5% at the end of the fifth year and 8.6% and 39% in the tenth year, respectively 第5年末,A组和B组的肝癌发生率分别为5.7%和17.5%,第10年末分别为8.6%和39%
s54 Sentence Blood banks test all donated blood for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C, which greatly reduces the risk of getting the virus from blood transfusions or blood products 血库通过对所有捐献的血液均进行乙肝和丙肝检测,大大降低了输血和其他血制品传播感染的风险
s55 Sentence Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as acute infections, but in some people, the virus remains in the body, resulting in chronic disease and long-term liver problems 乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎也以急性感染起病,但在一些个体中病毒可在体内隐匿,导致慢性疾病与长期的肝病问题
s56 Sentence Chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are recognized as the major factors worldwide that increase the risk of HCC, with risk being greater in the presence of coinfection 慢性乙型肝炎和慢性丙型肝炎(CHC)是全球公认的HCC主要危险因素,存在共同感染时风险更甚
s57 Sentence In the last few years, knowledge of the epidemiology and the natural history of HBV and HCV infections has markedly improved, and considerable progress has been made in the efficacy of therapy 最近几年来,随着对HBV、HCV的流行病学及其自然病程的了解显著深入,治疗效果得到长足进步
s58 Sentence Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening ; Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment ; Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment ; and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available 注:关于肝癌的其他总结,见肝(肝细胞)癌的筛查、成人原发性肝癌的治疗、儿童肝癌的治疗,及癌症筛查与预防研究的证据等级等PDQ总结
s59 Sentence Aflatoxins, which are mycotoxins formed by certain Aspergillus species, are a frequent contaminant of improperly stored grains and nuts. In parts of Africa, the high incidence of HCC in humans may be related to ingestion of foods contaminated with aflatoxins 由某些黄曲霉菌产生的黄曲霉素常污染未经很好储存的谷物和坚果,在非洲的某些地区,人群中HCC的高发可能和摄入此类被污染的食物有关
s60 Sentence HCC is very rare in persons younger than 40 years in the United States, and a much higher risk of HCC is associated with a long duration of infection with hepatitis C (e.g., greater risk after 30 years of infection) 美国40岁以下的人口中,HCC较为少见。高HCC风险与长时间丙型肝炎病毒感染相关(例:感染30年后风险更高)
s61 Sentence Strong evidence that hepatocellular cancer (HCC) can be prevented is provided by a study of immunization to prevent transmission of hepatitis B from infected mothers to their children, suggesting that if hepatitis can be prevented, then much HCC can be prevented 一项研究提供了强有力的证据证实,对乙肝产妇的新生儿进行接种乙肝疫苗可有效预防肝细胞癌(HCC)的发生,这也意味着,如果能预防肝炎,那么多数的HCC也可预防
s62 Sentence There is a distinct male preponderance among all ethnic groups in the United States, although this trend is most marked among Chinese Americans, in whom the annualized rate of HCC is 22.1 per 100,000 population among men and 8.4 per 100,000 population among women 美国不同种族的人群中均为男性高发,而在华裔美国人中这种趋势最显著。华裔美国人中,男性HCC年发病率为每十万人22.1例,女性HCC年发病率为每十万人8.4例
s63 Sentence Patients in group A (n = 35) underwent weekly phlebotomy (200 g) until they reached a state of mild iron deficiency, followed by monthly maintenance phlebotomy for 44 to 144 months (median, 107 months), and were advised to consume a low-iron diet (5–7 mg iron/day) A组患者(n=35)每周进行静脉切开放血(200g)至达到轻度铁缺乏状态,此后每月进行维持性静脉切开术,共44-144个月(中位数为107个月),与此同时建议这些患者摄入低铁饮食(每日5-7mg铁)
s64 Sentence Approximately 15 years later, after HCV had been identified as the cause of NANB hepatitis, chronic hepatitis was found to develop more frequently as indicated by persistent viral infection in more than 80% of infected adults but in only about 50% of infected children or young women 约15年后,人们才发现NANB肝炎的是丙型肝炎病毒所致,成年人更易发生慢性肝炎,成人持续感染者中超过80%发展为慢性肝炎,而儿童和年轻女性的感染者中则只有50%
s65 Sentence In the United States, chronic hepatitis B is the underlying cause of an estimated 2,000 to 4,000 deaths each year from cirrhosis and liver cancer; it is estimated that more than one million Americans have a chronic hepatitis B infection, many of whom do not know they are infected 在美国,每年约有2,000至4,000例肝硬化、肝癌死亡与慢性乙型肝炎相关;据估计,美国有超过一百万慢性乙型肝炎患者,其中许多人并不知晓自己已获感染并不清楚